Computer-tomographic characteristics of dental arts in young men and women with physiological bite, depending on types of faces
Correct approach to orthodontic treatment of patients requires studying the size of teeth and dental arches in representatives of different ethnic, age and sexual groups with physiological bite, depending on the features of the shape of the head and face type. The purpose of the work is to establish the limits of the percentile scope and the peculiarities of the computer-tomographic characteristics of dental arches in young men and young women with physiological bite, depending on the type of face. Primary computer-tomographic dimensions of dental arc characteristics, as well as cephalometric parameters 44 young men and 50 young women with normal occlusion close to orthognathic bite were obtained from the data bank of the research center of the National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya. Face type was determined using the Garson morphological index. The statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out using the statistical package “Statistica 6.0” using nonparametric estimation methods. In young men and young women with a physiological bite with different face types, the borders of the percentile range of the following distances are defined: between the apexes of the palatinal roots of the upper first molars, between the apexes of the distal cheek roots of the upper first molars, between the apexes of the medial vestibular roots of the upper first molars, between the apexes of the medial the roots of the lower first molars, between the apexes of the distal roots of the lower first molars, between the molar points by Pon, between the premolar points by Pon, between medial vestibular hills of first molars, between the cutting hills of the upper canines, between root apex the upper canines, between the tops of the lower canines, between root apex of the lower canines; as well as canine sagittal distance of the upper jaw, premolar sagittal distance of the upper jaw, molar sagittal distance of the upper jaw, depth of the palate at the level of the canines, depth of the palate at the level of the first premolars and depth of the palate at the level of the first molars. The boundaries of the percentile scope of the computer-tomographic size of the characteristics of dental arches in young men with broad and young women with wide and very wide types of face with normal occlusion close to orthognathic bite are established. It was established that in young men the distance between the apexes of the medial vestibular roots of the upper first molars, between the molar and premolar points by Pon, between the vestibular medial tops of the first molars, between the cutting humps of the upper canines, between the apexes of the roots of the upper canines, as well as premolar and molar sagittal distances of the upper jaw are significantly higher (p<0.05-0.001) than in young women of the corresponding type. In addition, the distances between the apexes of the distal cheek roots of the upper first molars, between the apexes of the medial roots of the lower first molars and the depth of the palate at the level of the first molars in young men with a broad type of face tend to have higher values (p=0.051-0.064) than young women with a broad type of face. When comparing differences in the size of dental arches between young women with a very wide and wide face, it was found that in young women with a very wide face, the distance between the apexes of the medial roots of the lower first molars, between the apexes of the distal roots of the lower first molars, and between the cutting humps of the upper canines are significantly higher (p<0.05-0.01) than in young women with a broad type of face. Thus, pronounced sexual differences are found for most transversal and sagittal characteristics of the dental arch of the representatives with a broad type of face (larger in young men), as well as minor differences only in the transversal characteristics of the dental arc between young women with wide and very broad types of faces (larger values in representatives with a very wide type of face).
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