Craniometric characteristic of the visceral skull in adulthood
In relation with the development of clinical endovasive surgery, neurosurgery, maxillofacial surgery there is an urgent need for their improvement. Recent year’s osteological and orthopedic areas of medicine have been rapidly developed; it requires an additional data on the age-related and individual anatomical variability. The purpose of the study – is to establish the range of anatomical variability of facial skull in adulthood taking in account the extreme forms, sizes and relations according to skull shapes. The research was conducted on a study of 100 bone samples of coherent and fragmented skulls from the collections of anatomy department of Kharkiv National Medical University. It was investigated 58 male skulls and 42 female skulls in 25-60 years old age. To establish an individual anatomical variability of the bone structures, was determined a number of main indices using the well-known craniodivider. All calculations performed by computer program "SPSS Statistics 17.0" using the digital standard package of the tables and initial data. It is proved that the highest range of the arithmetic average of zygomatic sizes (zy-zy) related with representatives of brachycephalic type of the skull, in adulthoods with mesocephalic type it decreases, the minimal range has been found in dolichocephalic type of the head and skull. The lower zygomatic diameter - the size between points go-go, also decreases in the arithmetic average from brachycephalic to dolichocephalic types that is associated with the gradual narrowing and lengthening of the visceral skull in adulthood. More stable results were found determining the forehead width (ft-ft). This parameter tends to decrease from brachycephalic to dolichocephalic. More advanced type of facial structure is defined in brachycephalic adulthoods, the narrowed forehead shape related with dolichocephalic type. For modern craniological estimation of the visceral skull, the size n-pr used to calculate special indices. According to our data, in brachycephalic males this parameter varies from 5.0 to 6.9 cm; females - between 4.8-6.6 cm. In representatives of mesocephalic type, the n-pr ranges in 10.0-11.6 cm. In people with dolichocephalic type, this altitude parameter increased in males from 5.7 to 7.9 cm, females - from 5.5 to 7.6 cm. It was also established that Ind1 has a wide range of variability, especially in brachycephalic males – 83.50 ± 9.70 and in females – 87.00 ±7.80, which includes a variety of visceral skull structure in people of different age. The range of this index in mesocephalic people is less – 86.00 ± 3.20 (males) and 85.30 ± 3.40 (females). Accordingly, in dolichocephalic type complete visceral index is observed in range – 91.20 ± 4.40 (males) and 91.10 ± 2.90 (females). Thus, it is proved that the specific type of visceral skull – europrosopic is specific for the people of Kharkiv region. It is characterized by increased latitudinal sizes: zy-zy, po-po and go-go, with a slight decrease in altitude parameters of the visceral skull n-gn and n-pr. Depending on the range of variability of individual parameters of the visceral skull - it will be possible to suggest the most effective and rational ways of surgical interventions and accesses.
 Del Neri, N. B., Araujo-Pires, A. C., Andreo, J. C., Rubira-Bullen, I. R., & Ferreira O. J. (2014). Zygomaticofacial foramen location accuracy and reliability in cone-beam computed tomography. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 72(2), 157-160. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2013.814804
 Ewers, R., Marincola, M., & Morgan, V. (2018). Restoration of the atrophic maxilla with four narrow and ultrashort implants. International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 4(2), 35-41. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcoms.20180402.11
 El Bouihi, M., Bouaichi, A., Lahmiti, S., Abouelhassan, T., Samkaoui, A., & Mansouri-Hattab, N. (2013). Submental intubation in maxillofacial traumatology. Revue de stomatologie, de chirurgie maxillo-faciale et de chirurgie orale, 114(3), 155-158. doi: 10.1016/j.revsto.2013.03.006
 Farlie, P. G. (2016). Frontonasal Dysplasia: Towards an Understanding of Molecular and Developmental Aetiology. Molecular Syndromology, 7(6), 312-321. doi: 10.1159/000450533
 Fearon, J. A. (2014). Evidence-based medicine: craniosynostosis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 133 (5), 1261-1275. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000093
 Fukuda, M., Matsunaga, S., Odaka, K., Oomine, Y., Kasahara, M., Yamamoto, M., & Abe, S. (2015). Three-dimensional analysis of incisive canals in human dentulous and edentulous maxillary bones. International Journal of Implant Dentistry, 1(1), 12. doi: 10.1186/s40729-015-0012-4
 Hanawa, S., Kitaoka, A., Koyama, S., & Sasaki, K. (2015). Influence of maxillary obturator prostheses on facial morphology in patients with unilateral maxillary defects. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 113(1), 62-70. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.06.016.
 Hoffman, D. (2015). Complications of TMJ surgery. Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Clinical Northern America, 27 (1), 109-124. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2014.09.008
 Huiskes, F. (2013). Bitemporal hemianopsia in frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal meningocele and eye abnormalities. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 84, 915-917. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-304741
 Kim, D. H., Choi, Y. H., Yun, S. J., & Lee, S. H. (2018). Diagnostic performance of brain computed tomography to detect facial bone fractures. Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine, 5(2), 107-112. doi: 10.15441/ceem.17.223
 Kün-Darbois, J.D., Guillaume, B., & Chappard, D. (2017). Asymmetric bone remodeling in mandibular and maxillary tori. Clinical Oral Investigations, 21(9), 2781-2788. doi: 10.1007/s00784-017-2080-8
 Lockwood, P. (2017). CT sinus and facial bones reporting by radiographers: findings of an accredited postgraduate programme. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 46(5), 20160440. doi: 10.1259/dmfr.20160440
 Monje, A., Urban, I. A., & Miron, R. J. (2017). Morphologic Patterns of the Atrophic Posterior Maxilla and Clinical Implications for Bone Regenerative Therapy. International Journal of Periodontics Restorative Dentistry, 37(5), 279-289. doi: 10.11607/prd.3228
 Przystańska, A., Kulczyk, T., Rewekant, A., Sroka, A., Jończyk-Potoczna, K., Gawriołek, K., & Czajka-Jakubowska, A. (2018). The Association between Maxillary Sinus Dimensions and Midface Parameters during Human Postnatal Growth. Biomed Research International, 15; 10. doi: 10.1155/2018/6391465
 Ranganathan, K. (2015). Comparative effectiveness studies examining patient reported outcomes among children with cleft lip and/or palate: a systematic review. Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 135 (1), 198-211. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000825
 Shen, L., Ai, H., Liang, Y., Ren, X., Anthony, C.B., Goodlett, C.R., Zhou, F.C. (2013). Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on bony craniofacial development: a mouse MicroCT study. Alcohol, 47(5), 405-415. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.04.005
 Smirnov, V. G., Janushevich, O. O., Mitronin, V. A. (2014). Clinical Anatomy of the Jaws. Moscow: Binom.
 Tak, H. J., Park, T. J., Piao, Z., & Lee, S. H. (2017). Separate development of the maxilla and mandible is controlled by regional signaling of the maxillomandibular junction during avian development. Developmental Dynamics, 246(1), 28-40. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24465
 Thiesen, G., Gribel, B. F., Kim, K. B., & Freitas, M. P. M. (2017). Maxillofacial Features Related to Mandibular Asymmetries in Skeletal Class III Patients. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 75(5), 1015-1025. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2016.11.011
 Thiesen, G., Freitas, M. P. M., Araújo, E. A., Gribel, B. F., & Kim, K. B. (2018). Three-dimensional evaluation of craniofacial characteristics related to mandibular asymmetries in skeletal Class I patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 154(1), 91-98. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.10.031
 Vovk, Yu. N., & Vovk, O. Yu. (2016). Perspectives and new directions of the doctrine of individual anatomical variability. Bulletin of problems in biology and medicine, 1(2), 376-379. doi: org/10.24061/103944
 Vovk, Yu. N., Vovk, O. Yu., & Ikramov, V. B. (2016). Practical significance of individual anatomical variability for modern craniology. Clinical anatomy and operative surgery, 15 (1), 105-109. doi: org/10.31174/SEND-NT2018-186VI22-01
 Wang, Y. T., Huang, S. F., Fang, Y. T., Huang, S. C., Cheng, H. F., Chen, C. H., … Lin, C.L. (2018). Anatomical Thin Titanium Mesh Plate Structural Optimization for Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fracture under Fatigue Testing. Biomed Research International, 20, 93-98. doi: 10.1155/2018/9398647
 Winston, K.R., Beauchamp, K., & Harasaki, Y. (2017). Everting Fracture of Entire Frontal Bone: Management and Importance of Preliminary Reconstruction. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 28(4), 1090-1092. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003560
 Zhang, Y., Lin, Y., Liu, Y., Luo, J., Di, P., & Ma, T. (2017). Lateral cephalometric analysis of patients with maxillary alveolar protrusion and advanced periodontitis treated with immediate implants and cross-arch fixed prostheses. Chinese Journal of Stomatology, 52(10), 625-630. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1002-0098.2017.10.009
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.