Somatotypological features of acrobat girls in different periods of ontogenesis
The somatotypological characteristic of acrobats in the literature is insufficiently disclosed, especially from the position of the role of sports selection, training and competitive activities in the formation of somatotype in athletes, whose professional activity is marked by coordination, rhythm and artistic movements, and the early onset of the impact of intense physical activity on their body. The purpose of the work is to establish the peculiarities of the components of the somatotype of acrobats with a high level of sportsmanship of prepubertal, pubertal and postpubertal age. We conducted a survey of 122 girls acrobats of high-level sports skills. As a control group, 126 girls were examined, who were not engaged in sports and studied in schools of Vinnytsia. The girls’ passport age was between 8 and 21 years old. In order to determine the biological age, we used the scheme Avtandilov G. G. (1990). The examined girls were divided into three groups according to the degree of biological maturity: prepubertal period (36 acrobats and 39 girls of the control group); puberty period (31 acrobats and 35 girls of the control group); postpubertal period (55 acrobats and 59 girls of the control group). The somatotypological study was performed according to the estimated modification of the Heath-Carters method (1990). The analysis of the obtained results was carried out in the licensed package “Statistica 5.5” using parametric methods of estimation of indicators. It was found that in the prepubertal period of the ontogenesis in the acrobat and in the girls who were not engaged in sports, the group somatotype was ecto-mesomorphic. In this period, the fatty component of the somatotype in acrobats was significantly lower, and mesomorphic - significantly higher than that of non-sports girls. In the puberty period, the somatotype in control and acrobats had distinct features of the ecto-mesomorphic type. It was found that acrobats in this period had a greater linearity of the body, as evidenced by the significantly higher values of their ectomorphic component of the somatotype. In addition, the size of the endomorphic component was significantly lower in athletes than in the control group. In the postpubertal period of ontogenesis, the F- and L-components were not significantly different, unlike in the previous period, which was characterized by intense puberty development. Acrobats only showed a significant predominance of the mesomorphic component of the somatotype. It can be concluded that the peculiarities of acrobatic sports activity in prepubertal, puberty and postpubertal age have the most significant effect on the development of the fatty and muscular components of the somatotype.
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