Determination of individual cephalometric characteristics of the occlusal plane in Ukrainian young men and young women with orthognatic bite

  • M. O. Dmitriev National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine
  • I. V. Gunas National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine
  • I. V. Dzevulska Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • I. V. Zhulkevych I. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
Keywords: occlusal plane, cephalometry, regression analysis, young men and women, orthognathic bite.


To date, there are no clear recommendations on the use of a particular indicator, cephalometric method, normative basis for the inhabitants of Ukraine when assessing the cephalometric characteristics of the occlusal plane. The purpose of the study - by studying cephalometric indices and conducting direct stepwise regression analysis - develop in young men and women of Ukraine with orthognathic bite mathematical models of individual characteristics of the position of the occlusal plane. In 38 young men (aged 17-21 years) and 55 young women (aged from 16 to 20 years) with occlusion close to orthognathic bite and balanced faces, lateral teleroentgenograms were obtained using the Veraviewepocs 3D device, Morita (Japan). Cephalometric analysis was performed using OnyxCeph³™ software. Cephalometric points and measurements were performed according to the recommendations of W. B. Downs, J. McNamara, R. A. Holdway, P. F. Schmuth, A. M. Schwarz, C. C. Steiner and C. H. Tweed. In the licensed statistical package "Statistica 6.0", using regression analysis, the following teleroentgenographic characteristics of the position of the occlusal plane were simulated: the angle YGOCLPl, the angle POR_DOP, the angle POR_OCP, and the SN_OSP angle. It was established that in both young men and women, all four possible models with a determination coefficient from 0.808 to 0.998 in young men and from 0.832 to 0.974 in young women were constructed. In the analysis of models of teleroentgenographic characteristics of the position of the occlusal plane, depending on the peculiarities of the metric characteristics of the craniofacial complex, it was found that in young men the most frequent regression equations include - the Wits indicator (21.1% for all four equations), the angle AB_NPOG (15.8%) and the distance PN_POG (10.5%). In young women, most often the regression equations include - Wits indicator (17.4% - also to all 4 equations); angle AB_NPOG, distance AFH, angle MM and angle SN_GoGn (by 8.7%). So, using the method of stepwise regression, among Ukrainians of juvenile, based on the features of teleroentgenographic indicators, reliable models of individual cephalometric characteristics of the occlusal plane were created.


[1] Braun, S., Kim, K., Tomazic, T., & Legan, H. L. (2000). The relationship of the glenoid fossa to the functional occlusal plane. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial. Orthop., 118(6), 658-661. doi: 10.1067/mod.2000.111224

[2] Câmara, C. A., & Martins, R. P. (2016). Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP). Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, 21(4), 114-125. doi:

[3] Čelar, A., Tafaj, E., Graf, A., & Lettner, S. (2018). Association of anterior and posterior occlusal planes with different Angle and skeletal classes in permanent dentitions : A lateral cephalometric radiograph study. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, 79(4), 267-276. doi: 10.1007/s00056-018-0139-z

[4] Choi, Y. J., Kim, D. J., Nam, J., Chung, C. J., & Kim, K. H. (2016). Cephalometric configuration of the occlusal plane in patients with anterior open bite. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 149(3), 391-400. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2015.08.020

[5] Coro, J. C., Velasquez, R. L., Coro, I. M., Wheeler, T. T., McGorray, S. P., & Sato, S. (2016). Relationship of maxillary 3-dimensional posterior occlusal plane to mandibular spatial position and morphology. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 150(1), 140-152. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2015.12.020

[6] Del Santo, M. (2006). Influence of occlusal plane inclination on ANB and Wits assessments of anteroposterior jaw relationships. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 129(5), 641-648. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.09.025

[7] Dmitriev, M. O. (2016). Definition of normative cephalometric parameters by Steiner method for Ukrainian young men and women. World of Medicine and Biology, 3(57), 28-32.

[8] Dmitriev, M. O. (2017). Identification of normative cephalometric parameters based on G. Schmuth method for young male and female Ukrainians. Reports of Morphology, 23(2), 288-292.

[9] Dmitriev, M. O. (2018). Determination of standard cephalometric parameters using the Downs method for Ukrainian adolescents. Reports of Morphology, 24(2), 22-26. doi: 10.31393/morphology-journal-2018-24(2)-03

[10] Dmitriev, M. O., Chugu, Т. V., Gerasymchuk, V. V., & Cherkasova, О. V. (2017). Determination of craniometric and gnatometric indicators by А. М. Schvartz metod for Ukrainian boys and girls. Biomedical and Biosocial Аnthropology, 29, 53-58.

[11] Doroshenko, S. I., & Kulginskiy, E. A. (2007). Teleroentgenography Basics. К.: Health.

[12] Downs, W. B. (1956). Analysis of the dentofacial profile. Angle Orthodontist, 26, 191-212.

[13] Flis, P. S. (2007). Orthodontics. Textbook for students of higher medical schools. Vinnitsa: The New Book.

[14] Fu, P. S., Hung, C. C., Hong, J. M., & Wang, J. C. (2007). Three-dimensional analysis of the occlusal plane related to the hamular-incisive-papilla occlusal plane in young adults. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 34(2), 136-140. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2006.01682.x

[15] Fushima, K., Kitamura, Y., Mita, H., Sato, S., Suzuki, Y., & Kim, Y. (1996). Significance of the cant of the posterior occlusal plane in Class II division 1 malocclusions. The European Journal of Orthodontics, 18(1), 27-40. doi: 10.1093/ejo/18.1.27

[16] Golovko, N. V. (2003). Orthodontics. Bite development, diagnosis of dental anomalies, orthodontic diagnosis. Poltava: PF “Forpika”.

[17] Gunas, І. V., Dmitriev, M. O., Tikholaz, V. O., Shinkaruk-Dykovytska, М. М., Pastukhova, V. A., Melnik, М. Р., & Rudiy, Yu. I. (2018). Determination of normal cephalometric parameters by J. McNamara method for Ukrainian boys and girls. World of Medicine and Biology, 1(63), 19-22. doi: 10.26724/2079-8334-2018-1-63-19-22

[18] Gunas, І. V., Dmitriev, М. О., Prokopenko, S. V., Shinkaruk-Dykovytska, М. М., & Yeroshenko, G. A. (2017). Determination regulatory cephalometric options by the method of Tweed International Foundation for Ukrainian boys and girls. World of Medicine and Biology, 4(62), 27-31. doi: 10.26724/2079-8334-2017-4-62-27-31

[19] Holdaway, R. A. (1984). A soft-tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning. Part II. Am. J. Orthod., 85, 279-293. doi:

[20] Jayachandran, S., Ramachandran, C. R., & Varghese, R. (2008). Occlusal Plane Orientation: A Statistical and Clinical Analysis in Different Clinical Situations. Journal of Prosthodontics, 17(7), 572-575. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-849x.2008.00341.x

[21] Khvatova, V. A. (2005). Clinical Gnathology. М.: ООО «Publisher «Medicine».

[22] Lamarque, S. (1995). The importance of occlusal plane control during orthodontic mechanotherapy. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 107(5), 548-558.

[23] McNamara, J. A. Jr. (1984). A method of cephalometric evaluation. Am. J. Orthod., 86(6), 449-469. PMID: 6594933

[24] Quran, F. A. M. A., Hazza’a, A., & Nahass, N. A. (2010). The Position of the Occlusal Plane in Natural and Artificial Dentitions as Related to Other Craniofacial Planes. Journal of Prosthodontics, 19(8), 601-605. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-849x.2010.00643.x

[25] Rosati, R., Rossetti, A., De Menezes, M., Ferrario, V. F., & Sforza, C. (2012). The occlusal plane in the facial context: inter-operator repeatability of a new three-dimensional method. International Journal of Oral Science, 4(1), 34-37. doi: 10.1038/ijos.2012.2

[26] Sahoo, S., Singh, D., Raghav, D., Singh, G., Sarin, A., & Kumar, P. (2014). Systematic assessment of the various controversies, difficulties, and current trends in the reestablishment of lost occlusal planes in edentulous patients. Annals of medical and health sciences research, 4(3), 313-319.

[27] Sato, M., Motoyoshi, M., Hirabayashi, M., Hosoi, K., Mitsui, N., & Shimizu, N. (2006). Inclination of the occlusal plane is associated with the direction of the masticatory movement path. The European Journal of Orthodontics, 29(1), 21-25. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjl036

[28] Schmuth, G. P. F. (1971). Methodische Schwierigkeiten bei der Anwendung der Röntgenkephalometrie in der Kieferorthopädie. Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie, 32(2), 317-325.

[29] Schwarz, A. M. (1960). Röntgenostatics; practical evaluation of the tele-X-ray-photo. Publisher: Brooklyn, N.Y.: Leo L. Bruder.

[30] Slavicek, R. (2011). Relationship between occlusion and temporomandibular disorders: Implications for the gnathologist. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 139(1), 10-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.11.011

[31] Steiner, C. C. (1959). Cephalometrics in clinical practice. Angle Orthod., 29, 8-29.

[32] Tweed, C. H. (1954). The Frankfort-Mandibular Incisor Angle (FMIA) in Orthodontic Diagnosis, Treatment Planning and Prognosis. Angle Orthod., 3, 121-169.

[33] Zhulev, E. N. (1995). Fixed prostheses: Theory, clinic and laboratory equipment. N. Novgorod: Publisher NGMD.
How to Cite
Dmitriev, M. O., Gunas, I. V., Dzevulska, I. V., & Zhulkevych, I. V. (2018). Determination of individual cephalometric characteristics of the occlusal plane in Ukrainian young men and young women with orthognatic bite. Biomedical and Biosocial Anthropology, (33), 5-11.