Effect of TXNRD2 rs35934224, FOXC1 rs2745599 and rs984253 genetic polymorphisms combinations on the development of primary open-angle glaucoma and their degree of association with the disease
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease caused by numerous genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interaction. In recent studies, the effect of genetic polymorphisms combinations and non-equilibrium linkage of allele genes related to the development of POAG has been proved. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of TXNRD2 rs35934224, FOXC1 rs2745599 and rs984253 genetic polymorphisms combinations on the development of primary open-angle glaucoma and their degree of association with the disease. The study included 93 patients (185 eyes) with POAG stage I-IV and 89 volunteers (178 eyes) control subjects without any types of glaucoma. The patients were divided into four groups according to the degree of perimetric changes (Nesterov A. P., 2008). All patients performed visometry, computer perimetry, tonometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, gonioscopy, keratopahymetry, optical coherent tomography of the optic nerve. Analysis of the TXNRD2 rs35934224, FOXC1 rs2745599 and rs984253 genetic polymorphism with POAG was performed in real time using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Gene Amp® PCR System 7500 (Applied Biosystems, USA) automatic amplifier. In the first stage of the study, the genomic DNA from whole venous blood was isolated using the standard reagents PureLink® Genomic DNA Kit for purification of genomic DNA, manufactured by INVITROGEN (USA). The analysis of polymorphism was carried out using unified test systems of TaqMan Mutation Detection Assays Life-Technology (USA). It was determined that the association with POAG had the genotype C/T*A/A*T/A as by comparing control with all patients, and by stratification – with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups of patients. The obtained results showed the evidentiary effect of this genotype combinations on the appearance of POAG, and on its progression by the stages of perimetric changes. The risk of the occurrence of POAG in carriers of genotypes C/T*A/A*T/A was increased by 2.8 times (p<0.001). In this combination, the two polymorphisms had heterozygous genotypes (rs35934224 – C/T, rs984253 – T/A), and the genotype rs2745599 – a mutant homozygote A/A. A combination of genotypes C/C*G/A*T/A was also important for the progression of the disease till stage II, which increased the risk of development of the POAG stage II by 2.9 times (p<0.01) compared to control. The risk of occurrence of the POAG in general and development of stage IV increased the presence of combinations of three minor genotypes T/T*A/A*A/A, which was encountered only in patients with POAG (in stage II – f = 0.025, in the third stage – f = 0.036, and in IV – f = 0.071). In our opinion, it confirmed the proposed working hypothesis of the study and showed that the more genotype combinations have the mutant alleles, the stronger this genotype affects the development of POAG.
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