Anxiety and depressive disorders in children of early adolescence


  • Yu. N. Lysytsia National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine
  • S. V. Rymsha National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine
Keywords: depression, anxiety, adolescents.

Abstract

The purpose of the work is to investigate the screening frequency of anxiety and depressive disorders and their manifestations in young adolescents to determine risk factors and develop measures for their prevention. Anxiety testing was conducted for 313 students of educational institutions of the Khmelnitsky region aged 10-14 years: 156 (49.8 %) boys and 157 (50.2 %) girls. 258 people were tested for the spectrum of depressive disorders, of which 51.9 % (134) were boys and 48.1 % (124) girls. Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to study anxiety, and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) by M. Kovacs, was used to diagnose depression. The probability was evaluated using Student's t-test with the construction of a 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the difference in means. Quantitative traits are given as M±σ. A high level of personal anxiety was determined in 20 (6.4 %), and situational anxiety in 17 (5.4 %) people. The average level of personal anxiety was determined in 38 (12.1 %), and situational anxiety – in 142 (45.3 %) people. A low level of personal anxiety was identified in 255 (81.5 %), and situational anxiety – in 154 (49.3 %) people. That is, most students of early adolescence had a low level of both personal and situational anxiety. Signs of depressive disorders were detected in 50.0 % of the examined children of early adolescence who completed the questionnaires, in particular, mild manifestations of depression were found in 70 (27.2 %) people, moderate in 46 (17.2 %) people, severe depression in 13 (5.0 %) people. The level of depressive symptoms in girls was higher (53.32±12.54 points) compared with boys (50.01±9.94 points), respectively (95 % CI, 0.5 – 6.0; p<0.019). The level of depressive symptoms among students in the city was higher (50.45±8.93 points) compared with students in rural schools (46.74±10.81 points), respectively (95% CI, 0.5 – 6.9, p<0.023). When comparing the severity of depressive symptoms in children from a boarding school (59.64±15.03 points) with students of other secondary schools (52.02±9.74 points), its predominance was significant precisely in children who study at a boarding school (95% CI, 2.5 – 16.3; p<0.008). So, in children of early adolescence, most have a low level of anxiety. At the same time, depressive disorders of varying degrees were revealed in 50.0 % of the examined children, which manifested themselves mainly in the form of low mood and anhedonia. Female sex, urban living, and having an incomplete family or orphanhood are some of the key risk factors for depression in young children.

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Published
2020-07-10
How to Cite
Lysytsia, Y. N., & Rymsha, S. V. (2020). Anxiety and depressive disorders in children of early adolescence. Biomedical and Biosocial Anthropology, (36), 41-46. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31393/bba36-2019-07